Cooper (motorcycles)

Cooper was a brand of off-road motorcycles made in Mexico using engine parts made in Italy and later, engines made by Sachs. Imported into the United States in the early 1970s by Frank Cooper and sold as Cooper. Frank Cooper was a dealer for Maico when he contracted with Mexican motorcycle company, Islo to produce an Enduro and also a motocross model. Cooper made a "street legal"Enduro 250 cc bike using a Yamaha 250 2 cycle engine in addition to other bikes. The design was by Malcolm Smith. It had some inherent issues as it came from the factory as the drive sprocket was too large causing the chain to wear into the engine case. While the bike handled well, it wasn't up to the standards of the Suzuki TM250 or Huskys of the same time period. The workmanship was substandard (former dealer in 1973) Islo also made a trials bike from 1971 - 1975 called GRM (Grapevine Racing Motors) that was imported to the USA, for Bill Grapevine, who designed the bike. Islo also supplied the engines for California's Jones Motorsports who had the AMMEX motorcycle franchise. The Islo manufacturing facilities and name were bought by Honda around 1982. Since 2000, the brand has resurfaced in the Mexican market under the ownership of Moto Road S.A. de C.V.; the same company that currently owns the Carabela motorcycle brand. Dune bashing is a form of off roading, using a vehicle appropriate for off roading on sand dunes. Whilst in some parts of the world, such as the fragile coastal dunes of Australia, it is illegal; in others such as the Middle East, it is a booming attraction for tourists. In the United States, there are areas as well, most notably the Silver Lake area in Mears, Mich gan and portions of the Glamis Dunes in California. Although most four-wheel drive vehicles are capable of dune bashing, the smaller, lower vehicles like most mini SUVs and compact SUVs are not used because they have a higher risk of getting stuck. Larger sport utility vehicles such as the Toyota Land Cruiser are more common. The vehicles used for this activity are usually equipped with a roll cage to prevent the roof from caving in on passengers in the case of an overturn; dune buggies, and sandrails are examples of these types. A specialized type of Dune-bashing is Tatees which uses highly modified vehicles with modified engines and sand-tires to climb a single slipface of a Star dune or so which usually are a hundred meters high or more. Similar to auto-racing, experience and skill is required to maneuver the car and prevent accidents. Before entering the desert in an everyday-use SUV, it is essential to reduce the tire pressure. This is done to gain more traction by increasing the footprint of the tire and, therefore, reducing the downward pressure of the 4wd on the sand as there is a greater surface area (much like the head of an axe, the axe must be sharp in order to split the wood). For example, tires with a recommended pressure of 35 psi would be reduced to approximately 12-14 PSI. Upon entering the desert, it is common to meet with a pack of vehicles and a group leader before proceeding. The group leader then leads the pack through the stunts in single file. The main reason for this technique is to prevent vehicles from losing track of direction and getting lost. Also as many people as there are seat belts in the vehicle are able to go dune bashing.