Polini

Polini S.p.A. is an Italian manufacturer of tuning parts for motorcycles, mopeds and scooters. Among other products, they produce cylinders and variators for both racing and road use.They also produce pocket bikes with 50cc up to 15hp. The company was founded when the Italian soldier Polini Battista returned from his service in World War II and started making bicycles, which sold very well. The first logo of the company was a ram, which was the coat of arms of Battista's battalion. When the first Vespa and Lambretta scooters started to emerge in the 1940s, manufacture of parts for these was started. Today, Polini is owned by Polini Battista's three sons; Carlo, Franco and Piero. Tuning parts are manufactured for all major brands of scooters and motorcycles. Polini also produces miniature folding scooters called SkAtE. Polini's main competitor is Malossi, which is also based in Italy. Engine tuning is the adjustment, modification of the internal combustion engine or modification to its control unit, otherwise known as its ECU (Engine Control Unit). It is done to yield optimal performance, to increase an engine's power output, economy, or durability. These goals may be mutually exclusive, and an engine may be detuned with respect to output (work) in exchange for better economy. It has a long history, almost as long as the development of the automobile in general, originating with the development of early racing cars, and later, with the post-war hot-rod movement. Tuning can describe a wide variety of adjustments and modifications, from the routine adjustment of the carburetor and ignition system to significant engine overhauls. At the other end of the scale, performance tuning of an engine can involve revisiting some of the design decisions taken t quite an early stage in the development of the engine. Setting the idle speed, fuel/air mixture, carburetor balance, spark plug and distributor point gaps, and ignition timing were regular maintenance items for all older engines and the final but essential steps in setting up a racing engine. On modern engines, equipped with electronic ignition and fuel injection, some or all of these tasks are automated, although they still require periodic calibration. A motorcycle (also called a motorbike, bike, moto or cycle) is a two or three wheeled motor vehicle. Motorcycles vary considerably depending on the task they are designed for, such as long distance travel, navigating congested urban traffic, cruising, sport and racing, or off-road conditions. Motorcycles are one of the most affordable forms of motorised transport in many parts of the world and, for most of the world's population, they are also the most common type of motor vehicle. There are around 200 million motorcycles (including mopeds, motor scooters, motorised bicycles, and other powered two and three-wheelers) in use worldwide, or about 33 motorcycles per 1000 people. This compares to around 590 million cars, or about 91 per 1000 people. Most of the motorcycles, 58%, are in the developing countries of Asia Southern and Eastern Asia, and the Asia Pacific countries, excluding Japan while 33% of the cars (195 million) are concentrated in the United States and Japan. In 2006, China had 54 million motorcycles in use and an annual production of 22 million units. As of 2002, India, with an estimated 37 million motorcycles/mopeds, was home to the largest number of motorised two wheelers in the world. China came a close second with 34 million motorcycles/mopeds.